Now You See It, Now You Don’t: Hallucinations in Hypnosis

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Despite the fact that hypnotherapy has been validated as a legitimate practice by Scientific American and other scholarly publications, it’s ill-deserved reputation as a branch of quackery or cheap entertainment is alive and well.  Thus, when we discuss the idea of hallucination in relation to hypnosis, the average reader will not be surprised.

Just about everyone has heard that a hypnotist cannot force anyone to do anything that is against his or her firmly held morals and beliefs–such as commit murder or rob a bank.  In fact, a hypnotist can’t force you to do anything that you don’t really want to do in the first place.  The same may not apply, however, to what your senses tell you.

In the book, Course in the Science of Hypnotism (1960 Nelson-Hall, Chicago) author Axel Wayne Bacon quotes a certain Dr. Moll as saying that our sense organs may be “deluded” while in hypnosis.  That same individual states that it is well known that some people under hypnosis will drink water thinking it is wine or will smell onions and think they are smelling cologne.

I’ve actually witnessed a live demonstration of the altering of the sense of smell by none other than The Amazing Kreskin (who, by the way, has publicly stated that he does not believe hypnosis exists!).  In that demonstration, Kreskin told a group of hypnotized students sitting on stage that another student who was called up to the stage had not bathed in some time and was reeking with body odor.  No sooner had the student taken the stage than the hypnotized group began to hold their noses and complain.  One student was apparently so offended that he got up out of his seat and pushed the allegedly stinking student away, telling him to get off the stage!

This was an example of an olfactory hallucination, but what about the other senses?  Dr. Moll cites several examples of hypnotized patients hearing things and feeling things that are not there.  While he does not address the sense of sight, I have heard that even this sense can be altered.  In one case, a hypnotized woman was told that when she awoke from her session, she would notice a certain object on the hypnotist’s desk and would comment on that object.  Sure enough, when she was brought out of hypnosis, she pointed to the object (which was not there) and asked the hypnotist about it.  Ironically, the patient was not even hypnotized when she asked about the object!

In other cases, Dr. Moll  notes patients in hypnosis told that they are in a cold environment may begin to tremble, shiver, and wrap their coats around themselves, despite the fact that the room temperature is quite comfortable.

Of course, the hypnotist is not “forcing” anyone to apprehend something that isn’t there. The hypnotized subject is quite simply more open to suggestion when relaxed and listening to the hypnotist.  It is this very “openness” to suggestion that allows the hypnotherapist to make helpful and healthful suggestions that the patient will often adopt.

This speaks to the idea that trust is a key issue in any hypnotherapy session or in the relationship between hypnotherapist and patient.  This is not news to those who already practice as psychologists and therapists–who often find themselves in the position of offering helpful suggestions to their patients.  This trust begins with taking a full history of the patient and listening to the patient’s story as it relates to his or her presenting problems–getting to know the patient as in individual, and not just a set of symptoms.  In such situations, trust is much more likely to develop.

The hallucinations, then, are an important symbol and a demonstration of the patient’s trust in the therapist.

Scientific American Confirms It: ‘Hypnosis is Real’

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It is not unusual to hear intelligent people question the effectiveness and process of hypnosis, but many will take this a step further and question the idea that hypnosis–as a state of mind–exists at all.  One such doubter–a man for whom I have great respect–is The Amazing Kreskin.  Although Kreskin has used hypnotic techniques in his own performances, I have heard him insist that hypnosis does not exist as a state of mind.  It could certainly be argued that those who seem hypnotized and perform amusing and embarrassing acts in Kreskin’s demonstrations are merely going along with suggestions in order to be a part of the “show.”

How, then, can we demonstrate that hypnosis is a legitimate phenomenon arising from a subject’s brain?  Certainly, we in the hypnotherapy community can point to mountains of anecdotal evidence that hypnosis has brought about significant positive changes in people’s lives, but skeptics may argue that such changes could have come about by chance, or by the simple acceptance of a suggestion, rather than a therapeutic intervention into the subconscious.

It turns out, however, that at least one respected scientific journal has proclaimed that hypnosis is real.  A Scientific American article written 10 years ago tells about the use of what the authors call post-hypnotic amnesia (PHA) induced via hypnosis in order to do research on memory disorders such as functional amnesia.  While the results in themselves confirm the effectiveness of inducing temporary forgetfulness via hypnosis, the article also boldly affirms that these effects are real and that they are observable by certain changes in the brain.

Why is this so important?  Because it takes hypnosis out of the “New Age Hokum” basket in which some have chosen to place it, and affirms that this is a real phenomenon backed by both psychological and physical evidence.  Thus, skeptics–even those as accomplished as Kreskin–are no longer able to claim that hypnosis is a figment of someone’s imagination or an incorrect name for the power of suggestion.

To be fair, the publication is not necessarily endorsing all forms of hypnosis and hypnotherapy, including stage hypnosis.  For those of us who practice hypnosis as a form of therapy, that’s just fine, because the toughest challenge we often face is convincing potential patients that hypnosis is not just some hoodoo they have seen in the movies or on television.  The affirmation by SA that hypnosis is the real thing is a welcome sign that this wonderful therapeutic modality is gaining traction as a respected practice in the world of healing and research.


God Does Hypnosis

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One of the most frequent criticisms of hypnosis and hypnotherapy comes from friends and even some religious authorities who maintain that hypnosis is a form of sorcery, the practice of which is clearly forbidden in Holy Scripture.

As we have pointed out previously, hypnosis is not magic (or sorcery), but it can sometimes appear to be just that because of the amazing results that can be achieved. This is especially true when we witness a hypnosis demonstration in which the hypnotic subject appears impervious to pain or incapable of ordinary movement, or when the subject does something bizarre or  unusual at the bidding of the hypnotist.  This “magical” view of hypnosis is further expressed in popular media, such as films and television, although the depictions of hypnosis in those cases are almost always more fiction than fact.  Unfortunately, such depictions often portray hypnosis as an instrument of evil, or as a method used by unscrupulous individuals to hurt others.

Of course, the word “hypnosis” did not exist at the time of the writing of the Scriptures.  Yet the word “trance” does appear in the Bible, and in a very meaningful way.  In fact, in the biblical book of Acts, we find the following in Chapter 10:

9 On the next day, as they were on their way and approaching the city, Peter went up on the housetop about the sixth hour to pray. 10 But he became hungry and was desiring to eat; but while they were making preparations, he fell into a trance; 11 and he *saw the sky opened up, and an object like a great sheet coming down, lowered by four corners to the ground, 12 and there were in it all kinds of four-footed animals and crawling creatures of the earth and birds of the air. 13 A voice came to him, “Get up, Peter, kill and eat!” 14 But Peter said, “By no means, Lord, for I have never eaten anything unholy and unclean.” 15 Again a voice came to him a second time, “What God has cleansed, no longer consider unholy.” 16 This happened three times, and immediately the object was taken up into the sky. [New American Standard Bible]

Let’s consider what is happening in this passage.  Peter prepares to pray, but he falls into a trance in which “a voice,” apparently that of God, tells him to kill and eat animals which Jewish law considered unclean.  Peter knows this is against God’s law as he previously knew it, but when God himself cleanses something, it can certainly not be viewed as unclean.   This message comes to him not in a dream (we see no reference to sleep), but while he is in a trance induced by God–in order to teach Peter something new.  {This revelation later enables Peter to break bread with gentiles, which would otherwise have been frowned on by Jewish religious authorities.)

In general, this is a perfect picture of what happens in the hypnosis process, in that the deeply relaxed (in a “trance”) subject is given helpful suggestions and perhaps learns a new way of doing or being.  The trance state bypasses the possible arguments against those suggestions that might be posed by the conscious mind, in order to impress upon the deep unconscious the need for something new.

The point is that if God Himself can teach a lesson through trance and suggestion, it certainly suggests that we mortals can do so as well.  The Lord could have simply spoken aloud to Peter or caused him to have a prophetic dream in order to teach this lesson, but He chose this hypnotic method instead.  If God used this process to achieve His own purposes, surely the process itself cannot be said to be some kind of evil sorcery.

This is not to say, however. that mankind doesn’t ever seek to use any and all tools for evil purposes.  But hypnosis is just another tool–a clinical tool which is guided by the skill of a qualified professional and employed for the benefit of the subject.

The motives of our hearts, on the other hand, are truly the province of the Divine.

Who Can Be Hypnotized?

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It always fascinates me that whenever I meet someone new and I tell them that I practice hypnotherapy, they often seem to want to tell me one of two things: 1.  that they can be easily hypnotized; 2.  that there is no way they could ever be hypnotized.

In general, people who are fascinated with the subject of hypnosis (but who have never experienced the process) seem to believe, or more likely want to believe, that they would easily fall into a trance induced by a hypnotist.  There are several different psychological forces at work here.  First, there is the tendency of some people to want to please someone like a therapist, perhaps because they see therapists as good, helping people who are due some respect.  It is also a widely-reported fact among therapists that the number one thing a patient wants from a therapist is to be liked,  thus they express a liking for what the hypnotist does. Then again, there are some who simply find the whole idea of hypnosis to be exciting and interesting, and those individuals want a hypnotist to know that they are definitely open to being hypnotized.  Perhaps they are even hoping for a demonstration of hypnosis on the spot!

The other group, however, is quick to proclaim that they could never fall into a hypnotic trance, for a variety of reasons.  Again assuming they have never tried hypnosis before, some of these individuals claim they are too strong-willed to ever be taken in by such nonsense.  Others say that they are too intelligent to be hypnotized, implying that only a mind-numbed moron would allow himself or herself to be “taken over” by someone else’s ministrations.  Of course, some individuals are convinced that hypnosis has no basis in science and has no real effects; that it is a bogus undertaking, and thus any efforts by a hypnotherapist would be ineffective in their case.  Still others cite their own inability to relax, or to pay attention to anything for more than a few minutes.

Having hypnotized literally hundreds of people over the years, I also find that there are those who hint–or outright state–that they don’t want anyone mucking about in their minds and possibly unearthing secrets known only to them.  It is important to note here that these individuals are not expressing a disbelief in the effectiveness of hypnosis on them or anyone else.  On the contrary, they seem to be saying that hypnosis may be far too effective on them, and that the results could be embarrassing for them!  Rather than openly expressing such a fear or subjecting themselves to what they view as shame or embarrassment, some will simply insist that they cannot be hypnotized for other reasons, including those mentioned above.

Then again, there are times when hypnotherapy patients will turn out to be mistaken in their expressions about how easily they can be hypnotized.  I have personally seen cases where individuals will express great enthusiasm for hypnosis and its possible benefits, but will later say they found it difficult or impossible to “go into a trance.”  In subsequent interviews, some such patients have revealed previously unspoken reasons for not wanting to be hypnotized (“My husband thinks it is hogwash and may be the work of the devil!”) or for not wanting the hypnosis to work (“If I lose weight, it will hurt my overweight wife’s feelings.”}.

On the other side of that coin, I have also seen cases where individuals who disbelieve in the validity of hypnosis and/or their likelihood of being hypnotized will cooperate fully with the process and do beautifully in resolving a presenting issue.  Sometimes these people do not even realize that a change has occurred until the hypnotist points out that 40 minutes has passed on the clock, or until someone else notices a marked change in their behavior.  Such individuals are often pleasantly surprised.  While they may not have wanted to be hypnotized, they were apparently holding on to the slim chance that it might actually help them.

And this brings us to an answer to the question posed in the headline of this essay: “Who Can be Hypnotized?”  The obvious answer is that anyone who wants to be hypnotized–either consciously or unconsciously–can be hypnotized and can derive great benefit from the hypnotherapy process.  What this means is that the patient must be completely honest with himself or herself about whether this process is something in which they desire to participate.  For this reason, a skilled hypnotherapist will do a thorough screening to reveal any negatives that could compromise the effectiveness of the hypnotherapy session.

As an addendum, let me note that some studies have purported to show what percentage of the population in general is “suggestible” enough to be hypnotized.   Such studies, however, rarely take into account the psychological issues mentioned above.  Further, as practitioners have learned in clinical practice, suggestibility is not the key issue. Rather it is the level of desire to solve a problem and to allow the hypnotherapy process to work that will ultimately decide who can be hypnotized and how effective that hypnosis will be.

The Problem of Measurement in Hypnosis

In perusing the web, I ran across a neat little article from Psychology Today, dealing with “The Trouble with Hypnosis.”  Since I wasn’t aware that we had any trouble with hypnosis, I delved into said article and came up with an interesting point of view.  You can look at the piece via the link above, but let me summarize, if I may, just what the author believes is the “trouble” with the treatment mode known as hypnotherapy or hypnosis.

The trouble, from PT’s point of view, is that hypnosis as a process does not seem to lend itself to measurement  Yes, believe it or not, despite many attempts to quantify and capture this experience in a bottle, researchers have not been able to show that anything special is going on physiologically when a person enters hypnosis (beyond the obvious drop in blood pressure, slowing of heartbeat, deeper breathing associated with being relaxed in any condition).  That is, there don’t seem to be any brainwave patterns that can be readily identified as indicating the “hypnotized” state.

Actually, this is not quite true.  According to one online source, “In some studies, EEGs from subjects under hypnosis showed a boost in the lower frequency waves associated with dreaming and sleep, and a drop in the higher frequency waves associated with full wakefulness. Brain-wave information is not a definitive indicator of how the mind is operating, but this pattern does fit the hypothesis that the conscious mind backs off during hypnosis and the subconscious mind takes a more active role. Researchers  have also studied patterns in the brain’s cerebral cortex that occur during hypnosis. In these studies, hypnotic subjects showed reduced activity in the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex, while activity in the right hemisphere often increased.”

The real problem seems to be that we don’t quite have that telltale brain signature that screams “this person is under hypnosis.”  And if we can’t reliably tell whether or not a person is in a “trance,” then we can’t reliably measure such a trance.  Measurement, you see, is the scientist’s bread and butter.  If we can’t measure something, then how on earth can we find out how it works, or to what degree it works in any given situation?

These are fair questions for physiologists, but they are actually irrelevant for psychologists, who have been trying to measure behaviors and their causes for more than 100 years without anything like what a hard-core scientist would call “scientific accuracy.”  The hard fact is that we are dealing with human behavior, and much as we try–sometimes with limited success–to predict such behavior, we are nearly always stymied by the fact that every human mind is different.  That is not to say that brains are necessarily different, but it is to say that the processes of the mind–while they can be generalized to some extent–do not in any way lend themselves to comparative measurement from one mind to another.  [Merriam Webster defines mind as “1 :the element or complex of elements in an individual that feels, perceives, thinks, wills, and especially reasons. 2 :the conscious mental events and capabilities in an organism.”]

I find this strangely reassuring, in that it confirms that we are not cranked out of the celestial factory with minds that work exactly the same.  That would make us little more than advanced robots, and it would be rather boring.

The fact that hypnosis is not a measureable process does not concern us, because in countless studies and in countless practitioners’ offices, the results have spoken for themselves.  As long as we accept that we have not yet figured out the physiology behind hypnosis–if physiology is even relevant–this should not prevent us from taking advantage of the obvious salutary results.  I am reminded of the fact that even in medicine, which assuredly holds itself in higher scientific self-esteem than mere psychology, some compounds are known to work for some conditions, yet the scientists do not precisely know “how” they work.

Will we ever know precisely “how” hypnotherapy works?  That certainly is a question for speculation!


Why Hypnosis is So Effective at Breaking the Smoking Habit

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For readers of this blog, it is certainly no secret that hypnotherapy is a highly effective tool for changing lives, enhancing health, and breaking bad habits.  That goes especially for the odious habit of smoking cigarettes.

In fact, when it comes to methods for stopping smoking, a study of 6,000 smokers found hypnosis to be the method with the highest success rate, according to an article in the Mirror, a British publication. But why is hypnotherapy more effective than nicotine gum or patches or drugs?

The key to answering this question lies in the idea that while many refer to smoking as an “addiction,” it is actually a habit.  According to the American Psychiatric Association, “People with addiction (severe substance use disorder) have an intense focus on using a certain substance(s), such as alcohol or drugs, to the point that it takes over their life.” Smokers may certainly feel like their lives are ruled by a need for cigarettes at a certain time or in a certain situation, but the problem is not nearly as severe as for those who are truly addicted to alcohol, for example, which is known to cause delirium, tremors, hallucinations, liver disease, and possibly death.

On the other hand, a habit, in psychology, is “any regularly repeated behavior that requires little or no thought and is learned rather than innate. A habit—which can be part of any activity, ranging from eating and sleeping to thinking and reacting—is developed through reinforcement and repetition,” says the Encyclopedia Britannica.  . This certainly better describes what happens to smokers.

Consider some of the feedback I have gotten from literally hundreds of smokers with whom I have worked over the years.  Almost no one–even among long-term smokers–says they smoke because it “tastes good.”  Instead, they (mistakenly) believe that it will help reduce stress–while in fact in may actually aggravate such stress.  Most smokers will habitually reach for a cigarette at a particular time (in the morning, or after a meal), in a particular place (visiting a bar is often a trigger), or in a particular situation (at work, or while reading or having a glass of wine, for example).

These habits become ingrained to the point where there is a psychological need, especially if the smoker thinks having a cigarette is beneficial.  While some claim there is a physical addiction to nicotine taking place, others–including E-Cigarette Politics, point out that “No clinical trial specifically to examine the potential of nicotine to create dependence in people who have never consumed tobacco has ever been published.”

The truth is that hypnosis is highly effective for smoking cessation because it is highly effective in helping people to change their habits–or to substitute a new habit for the old one.  A number of my patients have substituted drinking a bottle of water for having a cigarette, for example.  One patient I worked with just wanted to have a cigarette burning next to him in the ash tray as he worked.  He rarely bothered to even take a drag.  Some are satisfied just to have a pencil between their fingers instead of a cigarette.

Hypnosis is also very effective at psychologically linking smoking to something the patient finds disgusting or distasteful, such as dog food or a “plate of hair.”  Obviously, this aversion is helpful in avoiding cigarettes.

Do you or does someone you know have a problem with the deadly habit of smoking?  If so, we invite you to try hypnotherapy.

Can Hypnosis Help You Find Lost Objects?

One of my favorite characterizations of hypnosis is as follows: “Hypnosis is not magic, but it looks like magic.”

Most of us have been conditioned by media to believe that amazing results are possible with the use of hypnosis–and in some cases that is true.  What is also true, however, is that allowing the public to think that hypnosis is some kind of supernatural voodoo is not helpful to hypnotherapy as a scientifically-proven mode of help and healing.

Yes, practitioners can sometimes achieve startling results with hypnosis, but the results are only startling because many observers don’t fully comprehend what they are seeing.  Take the example of using hypnosis to find a lost object.  A patient recently asked me if it was possible to do just that.  My answer was, “Yes, assuming that you already know where the object is, but you are for some reason unable to access that information in your conscious mind.  Your unconscious mind, however–the part of your mind that notices things that your everyday conscious mind may overlook–may well remember where that object resides.”

Proceeding on that assumption, I conducted a hypnosis session dedicated to this subject, giving the patient a post-hypnotic suggestion that while she did not consciously know where the object was (her family had searched the entire house), as soon as she walked in the door of her home she would instantly know where the object was and would go directly to that object and retrieve it.

Sure enough, the patient told me the following week, the minute she walked in the door she went to a bookcase, moved it away from the wall, and retrieved her lost object, which had apparently fallen on the floor behind the bookcase.  Her conscious mind had no idea that the object had fallen behind the bookcase, but her unconscious mind evidently had noticed it and had given up that information while she was under hypnosis.

So, is this magic?  Definitely not!  There was no psychic manifestation.  What happened was simply that the patient was able to tap into her subconscious mind and retrieve information that was not available in her conscious thinking.  She really “knew” all the time where the object was.

While this is a wonderful use of hypnotherapy, we must emphasize that nothing supernatural or occult took place here.  This is not to deny, however, that the supernatural is real–as most practicing adherents of religions would surely acknowledge.  To be sure, we still do not fully understand the workings of the subconscious mind, but we do understand that the mind has many wonders that we are just now discovering.


What is “Past Life Regression?”

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When it comes to hypnosis, the amount of misinformation that circulates on the World Wide Web is sometimes astounding.  For example, an article on a British web site for journalists tells about a reporter who tried hypnosis to rid himself of an allegedly disabling fear of spiders.

The hypnotist in this case uses the hypnotic state to reveal to the reporter that his real trouble is that he is so attached to his mother–who also has a morbid fear of spiders, and who passed that fear on to the boy earlier in life.  .

Says the reporter:“This technique of taking me back to when I was a child is known as ‘past life regression’ and it encouraged me to talk with my former self and tell the 10-year-old me that I didn’t need to be afraid.”  The only problem with this is that hypnotically taking someone back to a previous point in their current life is not a past life regression.

One wonders how a journalist–who is supposed to labor to get the facts straight–could make such an error.  Then again, the sorry state of journalism in this day and age is not the subject of this article.

So what exactly is “past life regression”?  Wikipedia correctly states: “Past life regression is a technique that uses hypnosis to recover what practitioners believe are memories of past lives or incarnations, though others regard them as fantasies or delusions or a type of confabulation.”  This obviously presupposes a belief in reincarnation of some kind–the idea that we have all lived previous lives and keep having to live additional lives until some deity is satisfied with our spiritual maturity.

I don’t have the energy or the space to debate the validity of this concept, but I can point out that in the demonstrations of past life regression that I saw in my professional training, subjects typically were unable to describe details of their past lives without prompting from the hypnotist.  Such prompting–or suggestion–is obviously unethical.

That being said, proponents of reincarnation will doubtless be convinced by such demonstrations, despite the methodological errors.  My main point here is to encourage you to think twice about anything you hear in the consumer media about hypnosis.  Chances are, the information is flawed.

‘Fake News’ Gives Hypnosis a Bad Name

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If the sorry state of today’s mainstream media isn’t enough to convince you of the death of journalism and the rise of “fake news,” consider a story that appeared online in a publication called The Press.
The headline of this piece seems to say it all: “Former church leader who used hypnosis on boys faces jail for abuse.”  Since many people won’t even bother to read more than the headline of this alleged story, the message will be clear–church leaders are using hypnosis to lure young boys into who-knows-what-kind of awful acts.  And once again, hypnosis is cast as the villain (along with Christians, for good measure).
But let’s take a closer look at the alleged story.  It seems a retired Methodist minister will be jailed after he was convicted of using hypnosis on four boys in Great Britain and then sexually abusing them.  No matter what your opinion of hypnosis or Methodists, obviously such behavior cannot be condoned.
But wait!  There is a valuable piece of information that is not reflected in the headline, nor in the first nine paragraphs of this story.  To wit, buried in the 10th paragraph (in other words, way down there) is the statement that not one of the victims said they were actually hypnotized, “but they froze in surprise and horror at what the respected church leader was doing.”  .
So, there was no hypnosis here, at least no effective hypnosis.  This leads us to the startling conclusion that the boys were NOT hypnotized into committing deviant acts.  Yet if one reads only the headline and the first nine paragraphs of this smear job, one would get the mistaken impression that it was the evil influence of hypnosis that was to blame.
Why would any legitimate media outlet write a story in such an irresponsible way?  The answer is simple: without the bugaboo of hypnosis, there isn’t much of a story.  As it is, however, the fundamentally dishonest way in which this story is written (in order to achieve an agenda) is the very essence of “fake news.”
Don’t let the fear-mongering and dishonesty of such media outlets fool you.  Hypnosis continues to be a valuable clinical application that brings health and healing to millions.  .

Home-Based Hypnotherapy: A Good Idea?

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Today I ran across an interesting article entitled: “Home-Based Hypnotherapy Helps Kids. with IBS.” The subtitle reads: “Non-inferior to individualized hypnotherapy with a therapist.”
The gist of the piece is that a study was done in which kids treated via hypnosis for IBS and related problems using a CD at home were reported to do “as well” as those who actually visited the office of a hypnotherapist for their sessions.  While that may seem like hopeful news for those who would rather do their hypnosis at home, it begs a number of questions and omits a number of details.
First and foremost, what was on those CDs?  A reading of the fuller journal article tells us that kids used the CD to do “exercises” and that they did so five times per week for three months, but gives no clue as to the content of the CDs or what was involved in the exercises.  One would hope that the CDs were prepared by competent and certified hypnotherapists, but this is not stated.
Another issue is that the kids who got live hypnotherapy only received 6 sessions over the three months (versus the estimated 60 or more sessions on CD for the other group over the same period of time).  Thus, the CD treatment modality involved significantly more exposure to the presumably positive hypnosis suggestions that led to some success.
And success is yet another key factor here.  According to the study, “After 1-year follow-up, the 62.1% treatment success in the CD group was non-inferior to the 71.0% in the iHT group.”  Obviously 62 percent success IS inferior to the 71 percent success rate of the live hypnotherapy group, but statistically, it was judged to be “non-inferior.”  When we consider, however, that the CD group had many more exposures to what was ostensibly the same material, the CD success rate should, in fact, have been much higher than that of the live group.
If anything, this study demonstrates the far greater effectiveness of the live model. 
This is not to say, however, that listening to CDs at home is not helpful.  In fact, when we at 10:10 Hypnotherapy and Counseling do a hypnosis session, it is usually recorded and sent home with the patient on CD to allow listening in between sessions.  This amplifies the positive messages of the session and increases the chances of success.
The bottom line is that the best chance of success in your hypnotherapy is achieved when you are in session with a qualified professional who may or may not send home a CD with you in order to strengthen the already powerful positive suggestions in your live sessions.
Do you have an opinion on this topic?  If so, let us know!